Logarithms : Definition; General properties; Change of base. Complex Numbers: Definition and properties of complex numbers; Complex conjugate; Triangl inequality; Square root of complex numbers; Cube roots of unity; De Moivre's theorem (statement only) and its elementary applications. Solution of quadratic equation in complex number system.
Permutation and combination : Permutation of n different things taken r at a time (r ≤ n). Permutation of n things not all different. Permutation with repetitions (circular permutation excluded). Combinations of n different things taken r at a time (r ≤ n). Combination of n things not all different. Basic properties. Problems involving both permutations and combinations.
Principle of mathematical induction : Statement of the principle, proof by induction for the sum of squares, sum of cubes of first n natural numbers, divisibility properties like 22n — 1 is divisible by 3 (n ≥ 1), 7divides 2n+1+2n+2 (n ≥ 1) 3
Coordinate geometry of two dimensions : Distance formula, section formula, area of a triangle, condition of collinearity of three points in a plane. Polar coordinates, transformation from Cartesian to polar coordinates and vice versa. Parallel transformation of axes, concept of locus, elementary locus problems. Slope of a line. Equation of lines in different forms, angle between two lines. Condition of perpendicularity and parallelism of two lines. Distance of a point from a line. Distance between two parallel lines. Lines through the point of intersection of two lines. Equation of a circle with a given center and radius. Condition that a general equation of second degree in x, y may represent a circle. Equation of a circle in terms of endpoints of a diameter . Equation of tangent, normal and chord. Parametric equation of a circle. Intersection of a line with a circle. Equation of common chord of two intersecting circles. Definition of conic section, Directrix, Focus and Eccentricity, classification based on eccentricity. Equation of Parabola, Ellipse and Hyperbola in standard form, their foci, directrices, eccentricities and parametric equations.