Exam Information

Environmental issues :  Sound, air, water pollution and their control; agrochemical and their effects; green house effect and global warming; ozone depletion; deforestation; idea of success stories addressing environmental issues- 1) Chipko Movement, 2) Dasholi Gram Swarajya Mandal Movement (DGSM), Silent Valley or Amrita Devi Bishnoi Movement (Jaipur); concept and biomagnifications and bioaccumulation; cause of dyslexia, Minamata and itai-itai diseases; idea of BOD, COD, acid rain, ozone hole.

Microbes and human welfare : Morphological characteristics of bacteriophage (T2), plant virus (TMV), animal virus (influenza) and bacteria (E.coli), gram negative and gram positive bacteria (characteristics and examples) Health and diseases Concept of immune system, antibody, antigen and its reactions; types of immunity, vaccine and vaccination (brief idea); pathogens and parasites causing human diseases (only causative agents, symptoms of diseases, modes of transmission and preventive measures)- malaria, kala azar, amoebiasis, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, ring worm, HIV, AIDS, cancer.

Biotechnology and its applications : Principle and process of genetic engineering (recombinant DNA technology); cloning of microbial genes (brief idea only); application of biotechnology in health and agriculture- in household food processing; industrial production, energy generation, sewage treatment; Rhizobium and other nitrogen fixing bacteria, biofertilizers and biopesticides, industrial production of curd; tanning and brewery, synthesis of antibiotics, vitamins, human insulin and vaccine production; gene therapy, transgenesis, transgenic animals and plants with examples (including BT cotton)

Animals : Human

1. Digestion and absorption: Structure of human alimentary canal including dental arrangement and digestive glands (in brief); peristalsis; digestion, role of digestive enzymes and the Cr-I hormones in digestion; absorption, assimilation of carbohydrates, protein and fats; egestion; nutritional and digestive disorder- protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea (brief idea)

2. Breathing and respiration: respiratory organs in animals (in brief); respiratory system in human (outline); mechanism of breathing and its regulation in human body; exchange of gases, transport of gases; regulation of respiration; respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration- asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders (e.g. Silicosis, asbestosis); definition of hypoxia, anoxia, apnoea, dyspnoea

3. Body fluids and circulation: composition of blood (in tabular form); blood grouping; coagulation of blood; lymph and its function; outline idea of human circulatory system; structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, stroke volume, minute volume, determination of cardiac output- Fick’s principle; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity (neutral and hormonal) ncluding factors regulating blood pressure; disorders of circulatory system- hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure (brief idea only)

4. Excretory products and their elimination: modes of excretion- ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism (definition and examples); human excretory system- structure and function (histology of nephron); urine formation n and osmoregulation; regulation of kidney functions, rennin, angiotensin, antidiuretic factor (ADH) and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion- liver, skin, lung and salivary glands; disorders- uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney (brief idea only)

5. Locomotion and movement: types of movement-ciliary, flagellar and muscular; skeletal musclecontractile proteins and its function; joints; disorders of muscular and skeletal system- myasthenia gravis, tetany, muscular dystrophy, arthritis, osteoporosis, and gout (brief idea only)

6. Neural control and coordination: brief idea of neurons and nerves, neural control and coordination; nervous system of human- central, peripheral and visceral; brain and its major parts- cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and limbic system; midbrain, pons, medulla, cerebellum and spinal cord (outline idea); distribution and function of peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse; reflex action and reflex arc; sense organs- sensory perception; outline structure and function of eye and ear

7. Chemical coordination and regulation: endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine systemhypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads- location and function only; elementary idea of hormone action, role of hormones as messengers and regulators; hypo- and hyperactivity of endocrine glands and related diseases- dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goitre, exophthalmic goitre, diabetes, Addison’s disease (brief idea of cause and symptoms only)

8. Reproduction: male and female reproductive system (outline idea with diagram); microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis (brief account); menstrual cycle; fertilization and development of embryo up to blastocyst formation; implantation, pregnancy and placenta formation; elementary idea of parturition and lactation

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